More than £400m in fees and penalties has been generated from vehicle emission schemes in England, a freedom of information (FOI) request has revealed.

The FOI by Peugeot found that low emission and clean air zones have contributed to £418m since March 2021, with £320m of this total generated by London's ultra-low emission zone (ULEZ).

The car manufacturer’s research comes ahead of the expansion of London’s ULEZ next Tuesday.

The clean air zone (CAZ) in Birmingham generated over £79m and Bath’s scheme brought in £10m.

Between September 2022 and June 2023, Bradford’s CAZ made £7m. Portsmouth's zone made £1m between December 2021 and May 2023.

Local authorities are legally required to invest these earnings into local transport.

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