An RAC analysis of Transport for London (TfL) figures shows that between November 2021 and June 2022 an average of 1.9 million journeys were made into the zone every month by vehicles not conforming to either Euro 6 diesel standards or Euro 4 petrol standards.

This resulted in £112.5m worth of revenue from those vehicles required to pay.

RAC head of roads policy Nicholas Lyes said: ‘The expansion of the Ultra-Low Emission Zone in 2021 meant a far larger geographical area was covered by the mayor’s strict vehicle emissions standards. For many, this meant a very stark choice: either replace their vehicle with a compliant model or face paying the £12.50 daily charge. Failing to pay the charge wasn’t an option either as it would result in a hefty penalty charge notice.

‘The expansion of the ULEZ has resulted in a much-increased revenue stream for Transport for London, notwithstanding the costs associated with introducing the larger ULEZ. Londoners living outside the current ULEZ will now be worrying about the prospect of further expansion, mooted to be at the end of August 2023.’

Mr Lyes added: ‘We would encourage the mayor to take a pragmatic approach and redouble his efforts to support lower-income families and businesses with non-compliant vehicles with a targeted scrappage scheme ahead of any expansion plans.’